In a statement, the interior ministry said he was planning to escape this month.
It said Ceballos had planned to coordinate acts of violence at an opposition demonstration planned for 1 September.
He was arrested in March 2014 for inciting violence during protests against food shortages, high inflation and rampant crime.
The opposition said his arrest was an effort to quash dissent and described Ceballos as a political prisoner.
The Venezuelan President, Nicolas Maduro, says he is a criminal who sought to destabilise the country, and denies Venezuela holds political prisoners.
Ceballos is the former mayor of the western city of San Cristobal, an opposition stronghold.
More than 40 people from both sides of the political divide died in the protests.